Classification of shoes. Rules for constructing a commodity classifier
30.06.2020 41557

Classification of shoes. Rules for constructing a commodity classifier

The most important question that concerns owners of shoe retail stores today is how to increase sales. If five years ago, one buyer purchased, on average, four pairs of shoes a year, today consumption, according to statistics, is only 1,8 pairs. However, according to forecasts by DISCOVERY Research Group, by 2023, consumption will increase to 2,9 pairs per year. Fashion has also changed, heels are almost a thing of the past, sports shoes are in demand, comfortable and wear. But you can’t only sell sneakers and ugg boots, especially since these very models are available in all stores in the country! What to do and how to understand what to buy in order to build up from competitors and attract buyers?

Natalya Chinenova Natalya Chinenova - Chief consultant for business technologies in retail at Fashion Consulting Group. @in_retail, www.fashionconsulting.ru

To answer these questions, you need to use sales analytics. The fact is that each specific retail store has its own target audience, which consists of loyal customers who are ready to come to this particular store, and of customers living within walking distance within a radius of no more than 1,5 km from the point of sale. That is why even a single brand in each store can and should have a different assortment of goods, depending on the preferences of the target audience of each particular trading company. For example, buyers of a store located in a rich residential area will radically differ from buyers of an enterprise located in the historical center of the city on a pedestrian street, or from buyers of a point of sale located in an area of ​​increased concentration of students and universities. Understanding why customers vote in rubles, which groups of products, names and models are in demand is important not only for the purchase of goods, but also for the correct distribution of models between stores.

The basis of analytics is a competently and correctly formed product directory. The product directory is filled out on the basis of the product classifier:

COMMODITY CLASSIFIER - This is a document that represents a systematic set of names and groups of classification objects from the point of view of buyers. Product classification involves the division of all products into levels: classes, product groups and product subgroups. At the same time, goods at each level are combined into a category or class, group or position according to common signs or properties.

COMMODITY GUIDE - This is a required attribute of any accounting program (ERP-system). The product directory is filled out on the basis of the product classifier and is a linear display of the tree structure of the classifier.

Thus, the product classifier allows you to correctly manage the assortment and analyze customer preferences. The principles for the formation of a commodity classifier are the same for all companies. Nevertheless, a product classifier is developed for each trading company individually, based on the general idea and positioning of the store, the target audience and the chosen strategy.

The product classifier is built sequentially, in accordance with the logic of the product description and graphically in the form of a block diagram. The basic principle of formation of a commodity classifier is a tree of consumer decisions. This is a hierarchy of criteria according to which the buyer chooses and makes a decision on the purchase of goods. In accordance with international practice and the recommendations of Russian experts in the fashion industry, based on studies of customer behavior, the product classifier for both single-brand and multi-brand clothing stores, shoes is constructed as follows:

  • determines the price segment of the store or brand;
  • goods are divided into categories;
  • Categories are assigned attributes adopted in the fashion industry;
  • in accordance with the characteristics of the goods are divided into groups;
  • within groups, goods are combined into subgroups;
  • detailed decoding of each subgroup is created from the names of the models of goods;
  • each item is assigned characteristics-properties.

Sales analytics, in turn, also begins with large blocks: groups of goods and their attributes, and then, if necessary, a more detailed analysis of the properties of specific models is carried out. Just in order to get the correct reports, it is important to understand exactly what and how we analyze. This is where the main problems begin. Sneakers - is it a name or a group of goods? Can there be sneakers low shoes, low boots or shoes? What about sneakers? What's this? In which column of the commodity directory should this name be entered? Let's look at the names and classification of shoes.

Human foot structure and shoe business terms

In the shoe business, there are only nine groups of products:

1. SLIPPERS - light all-weather shoes intended for use at home (own apartment, house), with thin soles or without them. In accordance with the recommendations of orthopedists, slippers have a short period of use and must be replaced every six months.

2. BEACH SHOES - lightweight summer waterproof and non-slip shoes designed for walking on water, stones, sand, grass.

3. SANDALS - light summer shoes, consisting of the toe and heel on the straps and without heels.

4. SANDALS - lightweight summer shoes, consisting of the toe and heel, on the straps, with or without heels.

5. SHOES - shoes that partially cover the back of the foot, consisting of the fore and heel, with or without heels.

6. SHOES - A type of shoe without a heel, partially or completely covering the back of the foot, usually on laces, elastic bands or another fastener, reaching the ankle, but not covering it.

7. BOOTS - a type of shoe covering the ankle and ankle joint 2-10 cm above the ankle, usually without a heel.

8. BOOTS - a type of shoe that occupies an intermediate position between shoes and ankle boots, fits the ankle, but does not cover the calves, with or without heels.

9. BOOTS - shoes covering the leg from a third of the lower leg and higher, with the obligatory presence of a part covering the lower leg or its part, but not less than half, with or without heels.

In each of the product groups there is an infinite number of subgroups - shoe models. A model (an author’s construct based on basic styles) is the development of specific details of the top of the product based on the style, including:

  • quantity, configuration and arrangement of parts;
  • material features of the top, sole and lining;
  • the presence and nature of the fittings or decorations and other additional features added to the basic style.

Each model has its own design (pattern), made on the basis of the basic pattern (basis) of the style.

The SIGN of goods is the features of the GROUP OF MODELS (that is, one of nine groups), for example: life cycle length, functional purpose, type of material, heel height, etc.

PROPERTY of goods - features of a SPECIFIC MODEL, for example: size, color, heel shape, etc.

Consider the shoe groups in more detail.


1. Slippers - A type of slippers that easily glides over the foot and does not require fasteners. Distinctive features: consist of a dense sole and a fabric part that covers the upper part of the foot. There are models with open and closed toes, but always without a backdrop. Top material - any woven and non-woven soft materials, including leather. The name comes from the characteristic sound that slippers without a backdrop make when walking “slap-slap”.

2. SHOES (slippers with a back) - a type of slippers with a back. Distinctive features: models have a closed toe and a fully or partially closed calcaneal part. The top material is fabric.

3. CHUNI (indoor boots) - slippers that look like boots. Distinctive features: have a soft woven, leather or plastic soaking outsole. Top material - light, breathable materials, wool, felt, artificial and synthetic fabrics. Chuni - the ancient name for closed peasant footwear made of hemp rope.

4. KIGURUMI - slippers in the form of various animals, soft toys, felt machines and heroes of fairy tales. Distinctive features: have a realistic look. Upper material - artificial and synthetic fabrics. Kigurumi translated from Japanese means "carry a stuffed toy."

5. Booties (slippers-socks) - by design, these are socks made of dense yarn, to which the sole is sewn. Distinctive features: the sole is made of thin leather, suede or a thick knitted thread with silicone. The top material is yarn. This model of shoes was first proposed by the famous French shoe maker Pine. Hence the name “booties”, preserved to this day. Products in Pine’s workshop were sewn from huskies, suede, and milking (the leather of calves dipped in milk).


1. KROKS - shoes made of soft and light rubber Croslite. Distinctive features: orthopedic sole, ventilation holes, rounded nose shape, heel fixation strap. Top material - Croslite material. The name of the shoe comes from the Crocs company of the same name - a word derived from “crocodile”, because the shoe looks like a crocodile’s head.

2. SLATES - shoes made of artificial materials, most often made of plastic. Distinctive features: a flat non-slip sole and a wide jumper on the foot, opening the toes. Top material - plastic or rubber. Shoes got its name at the place of production. In the USSR, such shoes were produced at a factory in the city of Slantsy. In Europe and America, shales are called sliders - (from the English slide - sliding), there similar shoes got a name by analogy with the movement we put on slippers: “slip” with our foot, without putting effort. Sliders were popular in the 90s as shoes for the beach and pool. With the return of the fashion of the nineties, slippers appeared in the collections of Puma, Rihanna, in the wardrobes of models and stars. New generation sliders have already violated all the rules: they were made winter, supplemented with fur; turned into an evening model, adding rhinestones; began to wear with sweatpants, with socks and even silk dresses.

3. VIETNAMS- slippers, consisting of a rubber sole and two straps, fixed on the foot between the thumb and forefinger. Distinctive features: rubber sole, two membranes. Top material - rubber, textile, leather. In the USSR, at first they were imported from Vietnam, hence the name came from. In English-speaking countries, such shoes are called flip flops (flip flops), in Japan - Dzori (zōri), in Poland - Japanese (japonki).

4. HAWAYANAS - rubber flip flops. Distinctive features: vivid images on the soles. The top material is rubber. The name Havaianas comes from the feminine form of the Portuguese word “Hawaiians,” and the design on the soles of sandals is designed to resemble the straw soles of Zōri.

5. SOAP MYSTERIES (Soviet slang, jelly shoes in the west) - beach shoes, sandals made of molded plastic in bright colors. Distinctive features - a fully rubber case. Top material - rubber or plastic. In the Soviet Union, plastic shoes were aptly nicknamed “soap dishes” because of their resemblance.


1. Sandals - lightweight summer shoes, consisting of the bow and the heel of the straps. Distinctive features: lack of a heel. Top material - any. In ancient Greece, so-called shoes, consisting of soles and straps.

2. Gladiators - lightweight summer shoes, consisting of the bow and the heel of the straps. Distinctive features: a large number of interwoven straps. Upper material - leather, eco leather. The name came from Ancient Rome, where gladiator fighters wore sandals with lots of straps.

3. ROMANIANS - light summer shoes, consisting of the bow and the heel of the ties. Distinctive features: obligatory presence of ties. Top material - leather, ecoleather, fabric. Roman women wore similar shoes so that the hot sand did not burn their feet, and the Roman woman did not get tired of the heat and exhaustion.

4. SPORT SANDALS - lightweight summer shoes, consisting of the bow and the heel of the straps. Distinctive features - orthopedic thickened outsole, wide straps, Velcro. Top material - leather, ecoleather, fabric, artificial materials. The name corresponds to the functional purpose of the model - shoes are suitable for hiking and active sports.

5. BIRKENSTOK - light summer shoes with a wide sole, the presence or absence of a backdrop, open or closed toe, various variations of all kinds of sandals. Distinctive features: orthopedic insole and wide sole. Top material - leather, ecoleather, plastic. Birkenstock - from Birkenstock, a German shoe brand. It was this company that began to produce comfortable slippers with an anatomically correct sole shape. In the 60s of the twentieth century, Karl Birkenstock Jr. developed the flexible material Birkocork, which they began to use for the production of Birkenstock sandals. In the mid-60s, American Margot Fraser was relaxing at a SPA resort in Germany. There she was asked to wear Birkenstock sandals to get rid of chronic pain in her legs. Margo liked the orthopedic shoes so much that, having returned to the USA, she decided to create a company dealing with her import, and in 1966 founded the company Birkenstock Footprint Sandals, Inc. in California. Today, all such shoes began to be called birken stocks.


1. SANDALS - light summer shoes that do not completely cover the foot and ankle joint are well fixed on the foot. Distinctive features: only women's shoes that are worn on a bare foot and have a heel, wedge or platform. Top material - any. The name of the shoe comes from the ability to wear shoes without stockings.

2. SLINBEC - transitional model from shoes to sandals. Heel height and shape of the toe - any. Distinctive features: a closed toe and an open heel with a jumper for attaching. Top material - any. The name comes from the English sling back - elastic at the back. Their popularity began in 1947, when Christian Dior first showed the world a collection of new bow dresses, and continues to this day.

3. PIP TOY - Another transitional model from shoes to sandals. Heel height and shape of the toe - any. Distinctive features: open toe and closed heel. Top material - any. The name comes from the English peep toe - looking finger. A funny and slightly playful name for shoes, which is just designed for frivolous events and a pleasant company. Weddings, parties in the park or on the beach - everything where it is appropriate to boast grace of toes.

4. DORSEY - sandals with a sufficiently closed forefoot and back. Heel height and shape of the toe - any. Distinctive features: the arch of a foot is open. Top material - any. Shoes got their name in honor of Count Alfred Guillaume d'Orsay (1801 - 1852), the founder of fashion in the first half of the XNUMXth century. When the count was in military service, he was categorically not comfortable with shoes designed for a uniform. He ordered the shoes to be made at his discretion. They had a sharp nose, sat tight enough on their feet, had cutouts on their sides. The newly-made style has become terribly popular among the nobility, after which it forever moved to the girls' wardrobe.

5. SABO (sabo) - shoes with an open heel on a thick sole. Sometimes such models are called clogs. Canonical clogs have a cast platform with a heel and resemble wooden pads. Distinctive features: shoes with a massive sole, one-piece or with a steady heel. The toe of the model can be either open or closed. Top material - genuine leather, suede, textiles. The origin of the name is from the French word sabot - wooden shoes. Once the clogs were made from a single piece of wood and were worn by commoners of Europe - artisans, fishermen, farmers and other working people. In the twentieth century, clogs, or clogs, found a new fashionable life. In the 70s of the last century, these shoes became incredibly popular. At that time everyone was striving for ethnicity, naturalness, nature, and clogs became an indispensable element of the hippie style, and it was then that the first modern models were born. In addition to wooden shoes, there are clogs on cork or even polyurethane, much lighter soles.

6. MULES - these are shoes without a backdrop. Distinctive features: always open heel, without fastening and membranes. Top material - genuine leather, textiles, suede, plastic, artificial materials. The origin of the name is from the Italian word mulleus, which in translation means “thinker”. In ancient Rome, shoes, vaguely reminiscent of the modern model of mule, were worn by pundits, for whom it was considered a privilege. Today, as in ancient times, mules are sandals for both women and men.

7. Grandmothers (babouches) - soft shoes without a heel and without a heel or with a low stable heel, a kind of leather slippers. Distinctive features: a heel, which is not just absent in the design of the shoe, but, like a stopan, is laid inside; it is permissible to have a small leather side in the heel. Top material - genuine leather, textile, suede. The name comes from the French babouche and from the Persian babuche - shoes. The dual origin of the name is related to the history of the penetration of the model from Morocco to Europe. What are grandmothers, first learned by Moroccan women who used soft shoes without heels and without backs in everyday life. In such slippers, it was convenient to visit a mosque and quickly take off shoes during prayer. Moroccan shoes are easy to put on and take off, without having to bend over or unfasten the clasps. In the mid-sixteenth century, slippers from Morocco arrived in Europe as overseas souvenirs. However, French women really liked soft leather shoes with intricate patterns. European fashionistas adorned grandmothers with pearls and precious stones, embroidered with gold threads. As home shoes, grandmothers firmly established themselves in the wardrobe of all European women. In the XX century, grandmothers took to the streets and catwalks with hippies and fashion designers, and firmly entered the wardrobe of not only women, but also men.

In this article, we examined four groups of shoes and the main models (subgroups) that are part of them.

The characteristics of shoes are primarily signs related to each model in the group:

  • gender and age signs: women's, men's, children's shoes and unisex shoes;
  • functional features: formal, sports, comfortable, casual or smart shoes;
  • seasonal signs: winter, spring, summer, autumn, all-weather, demi-season shoes;
  • life cycle length: basic models, fashion models, or edgy models.
The most important question that concerns owners of shoe retail stores today is how to increase sales. If five years ago, one buyer purchased, on average, four pairs of shoes a year, then ...
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