General Director of the logistics company "VSN-TRANSIT" Natalia Rudkovskaya at the March exhibition "Obuv. Mir Kozhi ”shared her experience of customs clearance of goods for those companies that want to avoid mistakes in deliveries to Russia. What should you pay attention to when delivering to Russia?
Any delivery should include three components.
1. Product certification (relevant only for children's shoes).
2. Customs Clearance Rules.
3. Necessary documents from the supplier and requirements for them.
Before entering the Russian market, your product must be certified in the country by special certification bodies. It is necessary to obtain two certificates: a sanitary-epidemiological certificate (SEZ), for a period of 5 years, and a certificate of conformity ROSTEST, for a period of one or three years. There are several types of certificates: for a batch of goods up to 10 pcs., For a contract or a Russian company-buyer, as well as for a manufacturer of goods.
The contract certificate is valid for the duration of the contract. It is declared by a Russian company that provides samples of goods for testing, constituent documents and a certificate for trade, certifying it with its seal. If the supplier sold a similar product to another Russian buyer, then the latter, in turn, must receive the same certificate, passing the same tests and paying the same duties. Only this buyer has the right to import this product under this certificate and carry out customs clearance. How many buyers the factory has - how many certificates will have to be obtained.
The certificate for the manufacturer is more convenient for trade and customs clearance. The supplier can choose any representative, even a private person, to provide him with a power of attorney from the factory (manufacturer, seller) for the right to receive a certificate of conformity and a sanitary-epidemiological certificate, a declaration (letter about the manufacturer), a business registration document for the manufacturing country, samples goods. All documents must be in Russian and English and certified by the manufacturer's seals. The requirements for issuing a certificate for a manufacturer are stricter than when issuing a certificate for a contract; the fee is two times higher (about $ 1000 for SEZ and $ 700 – 800 for a certificate of conformity with ROSTEST). But a certificate for a manufacturer can be presented by any buyer of this product, just as any seller of the same product can use it for trade in Russia. Samples of goods cannot be sent by mail and taken with some delivery (in this case, they may require a certificate). Usually they are brought in privately and submitted to certification bodies.
A certificate is made for each group of goods and for the composition of the goods. You can combine only identical goods belonging to the same HS code and the same composition.
If the product is not subject to certification, a refusal letter will be issued (the cost is $ 400 – 500).
In connection with the new law “On Certification” for a number of goods, compulsory certification has been canceled, it’s enough for the supplier to fill out a quality declaration, but at the moment this does not simplify the registration process.
Features of customs clearance of goods
In Russia, for each product code (HS code combines goods by groups and characteristics), there is its own customs duty rate (percentage of the value of the goods) and value-added tax (VAT). When determining the rate, the cost of the invoice and the cost of delivery to the border of the Russian Federation are taken into account. If the euro delivery is prescribed in the fee, then the payment is taken from a larger amount. When supplying shoes, one of the main problems is the determination of the HS code. There are a lot of nuances depending on the composition and materials from which this shoe is made.
It is necessary to remember the main thing: everything that is in the container should be declared. Any undeclared goods (including printed catalogs, leaflets, booklets, additional packaging, plastic bags, spare cardboard boxes, etc.) will be confiscated, and a fine will be charged for violation of customs legislation and an administrative or criminal case will be opened. For everything that is stated in the invoice (even if it is an advertising product, packaging - everything that is distributed free of charge), the recipient must pay a fee in any case. Duty is not subject only to humanitarian assistance.
In addition to duties, the customs clearance system provides for a system of risks for goods and countries, including the cost of imported goods. It often happens that the value recommended by customs is higher than the real value of the goods. In this case, the customs inspector has the right to request a set of additional documents: export declaration of the sending country, price list of the manufacturer or seller of the goods, certified by the CCI of the sending country (sample), proforma invoice (order of goods).
Basic documents for goods clearance:
- foreign trade contract (in two languages) with applications and additions;
- invoice (in the language of the sender or in English);
- packing list (in the language of the sender or in English);
- product specification (in Russian or in two languages, English / Russian);
- transport invoice (bill of lading for sea transportation or TIR, CMR for road transportation);
- an invoice for the transport of goods (broken down to the border of Russia);
- certificate of origin of form “A”.
All documents must strictly correspond to each other in weight, quantity and cost of goods. Otherwise, the customs inspector has the right to raise the value of the goods and take an increased duty.
Another design feature is the inspection of goods. An inspector may inspect any vehicle, any consignment. If it is a container or a machine with different article numbers of models, it is necessary to put one box with each article at the door (in order not to unload the container or the machine, any loading and unloading can damage both the packaging and the goods themselves).
If the inspector finds a discrepancy in the documents, he draws up an act of violation or unlawful declaration of goods, which will delay this cargo for up to three months (the period of formal procedures for the violation). And this entails the payment of downtime during loading and unloading of goods. These are very large expenses (sometimes they can amount to the invoice cost of a consignment), therefore, in order to avoid unnecessary expenses, it is necessary to carefully draw up documents.
Particular attention is required and the declared weight of the goods. The customs duty is calculated from the net weight, but if the goods do not match the declared net or gross weight, it can be confiscated in favor of the state with the institution of an administrative or criminal offense, and the supplier will pay a heavy fine. The declared weight of the goods must correspond to the real!
Additional document requirements
The price list must contain the following information (in accordance with the order of the FCS): name and address of the manufacturer, delivery conditions, date of issue (time until the invoice proforma is placed), validity date, full range of the manufacturer (error if the price list is issued only for the ordered product), payment terms, discount system, the mention that the marking and trademark are made by order of the buyer.
The price list should not be targeted - this is only a public offer, and nothing more.
The packing list should contain information on the quantity of goods, packaging, labeling, trademark, as well as a description of the goods, gross and net weights, legal addresses of the buyer and seller, a link to the contract, date of issue of the packing list, number and conditions of shipment.
The invoice must indicate: product name, description, brand, unit price, total price for this item, total price for a consignment, reference to the contract, delivery conditions, payment terms, bank details that will be paid (in strict according to the bank details of the contract), name and legal address of the buyer and seller, date of issue, number.
The name of the supplier and recipient in the contract, invoice, packing list, specification, export declaration, certificate of form “A”, bill of lading must be the same.
The weights and amounts in all accompanying documents must be the same.
Product labels and stickers must strictly comply with the buyer's order and must be reflected in the accompanying documents.
The marking on the packaging and product must comply with Russian trade laws and delivery conditions. The manufacturer receives this information from the buyer.
If the supplier made a mistake in the documents, he must urgently inform the customer in a letter. And it’s best to give all the documents to the customer before sending to avoid errors and unnecessary expenses.
For your information:
Deliveries to Russia. Instruction manual
1. For all goods imported into Russia (before it arrives in the country), it is necessary to obtain certificates of conformity or letters of refusal. Some spare parts (if supplied) require certificates.
2. All free, advertising, packaging samples and attachments must be declared for customs clearance.
3. The main set of documents from the supplier: foreign trade contract; price list of the manufacturer (seller), ordinary and certified by the CCI of the country of manufacture; proforma invoice to order; invoice packing list; specification; certificate of origin (form “A”); bill of lading (when paying for delivery, the supplier provides a transport invoice or the amount of transport costs is recorded in the invoice); export declaration (it is advisable to assure its authenticity in the CCI of the sending country).
4. All documents must contain the same information about the sender, weight, cost and quantity of goods.
5. The price list from the supplier should be an open offer.
6. At the door of the container or vehicle, you must put one box with each article of goods. When ordering goods of the same type and article, but in different colors - one box of each color.
7. Marking of goods should be reflected in the accompanying documents and agreed with the buyer.
8. For any goods not declared by the seller and for a weight mismatch, the buyer bears material and administrative criminal liability.
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